First report of Apple mosaic ilarvirus and Tomato ringspot nepovirus in Jordan
The pome fruit industry is important in Jordan, especially in the south, with a total area of approximately 4240 ha. In particular, apple production has increased in recent years. Surveys were conducted in 2002/2003 in the traditional growing areas of apple, pear and quince in Jordan to assess their phytosanitary status. 1565 samples were collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees growing in 38 commercial orchards, 21 nurseries, 1 mother block and 1 varietal collection. In total, 1393 apple, 145 pear and 23 quince samples were tested by DAS-ELISA for the presence of the following viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus (ACLSV), Apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV – EU Annexes), Apple stem grooving capillovirus (ASGV) and Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRsV – EPPO A2 list). All four viruses were detected in a large number of samples. ToRSV was the most prevalent followed by ASGV. ToRSV was found in commercial orchards but also in nurseries and in the tested mother block. It is felt that the high frequency of ToRSV is probably related to infestations of its nematode vector Xiphinema americanum* and infections of other plant species (such as stone fruits, grapevine and some weeds). Based on this survey, it is considered that in the absence of any certification system in Jordan, the level of virus infection is within an acceptable range. However, the major concern is that all viruses studied were detected in the mother block which stressed the need for a sanitation programme. The EPPO Secretariat had previously no information on the occurrence of ApMV, ASGV and ToRSV in Jordan.
The situation of both Apple mosaic ilarvirus and Tomato ringspot nepovirus in Jordan can be described as follows: Present, widespread, occurrence was confirmed in 2005.
* EPPO note: X. americanum sensu stricto (EPPO A1 list) does occur in Europe, so this record probably relates to X. pachtaicum (=X. mediterraneum) which is reported as present in Jordan. However, X. pachtaicum is not known to be a vector of ToRSV.
Salem N, Mansour A, Al-Musa A (2005) Viruses of pome fruit trees in Jordan.
Journal of Plant Pathology 87(2), 123-126.