Studies on Bursaphelenchus species associated with Pinus pinaster in Portugal
In March 1999 in Portugal, during a survey on nematode species associated with pines, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (EPPO A1 list) was detected on Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) for the first time in Europe (see EPPO RS 99/152). Further surveys confirmed that the pest was restricted within an area in the Setúbal peninsula. This infested area has since been precisely delimited every year and is submitted, as well as a surrounding buffer zone, to strict phytosanitary measures (demarcated zone). In addition, a survey programme is being carried out in the rest of the country. Research was recently done on Bursaphelenchus species associated with P. pinaster using morphological and molecular analysis (PCR RFLP). In total, 4810 samples of P. pinaster wood material were collected from all Portuguese regions including the infested area. The following Bursaphelenchus species were found: B. hellenicus, B. hylobianum, B. leoni, B. pinophilus, B. sexdentati, B. tusciae, B. teratospicularis, B. xylophilus and a species Bursaphelenchus sp. 1 (initially thought to be B. hofmanni, but this was later questioned). Population levels found in tested samples were usually low. The greater number of Bursaphelenchus species was found in northern and central Portugal which reflects the higher density of P. pinaster in these regions. The large number of infested samples found in the demarcated zone simply reflects a higher intensity of sampling. In the demarcated zone, B. xylophilus was the most frequently found species, followed by Bursaphelenchus sp. 1 (B. mucronatus was only found in 1 sample). In addition, 62 specimens of Hylobius sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were studied for the possible presence of Bursaphelenchus dauer juveniles. B. hylobianum was found under the elytra of 9 Hylobius sp.
Penas AC, Correia P, Bravo MA, Mota M, Tenreiro R (2004) Species of Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) associated with maritime pine in Portugal.
Nematology, 6(3), 437-453.