Details on quarantine pests in Spain: 2004 situation
The Spanish journal ‘Phytoma-España’ presents the phytosanitary status of the main crops in each region for the year 2004. The EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following information on several quarantine pests or pests of the Alert List. According to the EPPO Secretariat, Gibberella circinata and Oligonychus perseae are reported for the first time from Spain.
Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae - EPPO A2 list): Andalucía (cotton), Cataluña (tomatoes), Madrid (melon), Murcia, Navarra, País Vasco (glasshouse crops).
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (EPPO A1 list): Absent in País Vasco, confirmed by survey.
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae - EPPO A2 list): Andalucía (citrus).
Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae - EPPO A2 list): Andalucía (normal attacks on citrus and grapevine in the provinces of Málaga, Cadiz), Cataluña (moderate populations on most fruit crops, high on citrus), Comunidad Valenciana (control was considered efficient in 2004), Islas Baleares (control was difficult on citrus and grapevine), Extremadura (low incidence), La Rioja (high populations but under satisfactory control), Murcia (citrus, grapevine), Navarra (Prunus).
Cryphonectria parasitica (EPPO A2 list): Cataluña (severe damage on Castanea grown for fruit production and wood).
Ciborinia camelliae (EPPO A2 list): now widespread in Asturias.
Citrus tristeza closterovirus (EPPO A2 list): Cataluña (medium incidence).
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 list): Cataluña (detected in 12 tomato plantations, 3 ha), Madrid (found in several glasshouses of tomatoes), País Vasco (found in 1 tomato farm in Bizkaia). In all cases, eradication measures were applied.
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (EPPO A2 list): it was detected with a low incidence in potato crops in Castilla y León. In Cataluña, an outbreak was detected in Peramola (Lleida). Strict vigilance and official control measures were taken.
Diabrotica virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae - EPPO A2 list): surveys were done in Castilla y León in 2004, the pest was not found.
Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 list): Cataluña (extensive survey was done in 2004, not found near Lleida but few new outbreaks near Girona), País Vasco (1 new outbreak was found on pear ‘Conference’ near Muxika). In Navarra, no new outbreak was detected. Absent in Castilla y León, La Rioja. In all cases, under eradication.
Eutetranychus orientalis (Acari: Tetranychidae - EPPO A2 list): in Andalucía it was found in citrus orchards previously infested (Málaga, Córdoba).
Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (EPPO A2 list): absent in Andalucía and País Vasco (confirmed by surveys). In Cataluña, compulsory control against Scaphoideus titanus continued in the Alt Empordá area, the disease was found in 22 plants in 3 municipalities. All infected plants were destroyed.
Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae - EPPO A2 list): Andalucía (citrus, grapevine, strawberry), Cataluña (cucumber, peach and nectarine, strawberry), Murcia (grapevine, vegetables).
Gibberella circinata* (anamorph: Fusarium circinatum - EPPO Alert List): in Asturias, an outbreak was found in a forest nursery on young plants of Pinus radiata and P. pinaster. Eradication measures were applied. This is the first confirmed report of this pathogen in Spain.
Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae - EPPO A2 list): present in Asturias but populations decreased in 2004.
Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae - EPPO A2 list): Andalucía (smaller populations than in previous years on citrus, cotton), Aragón (maize), Asturias (tomatoes), Cataluña (lettuce, tomatoes), Extremadura (Capsicum, tomatoes, tobacco), La Rioja (Phaseolus), Madrid (tomato), Navarra (vegetables).
Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae – EPPO A2 list): Extremadura (little damage is reported in 2004).
Oligonychus perseae* (Acari: Tetranychidae - EPPO Alert List): it is reported for the first time as a pest of avocado in Andalucía (Málaga province). Severe attacks leading to significant tree defoliation were reported. According to the EPPO Secretariat this is the first report of O. perseae in Spain.
Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae - EPPO Alert List): it was detected in 2003 on Islas Baleares on palms. It was found again in 2004. Affected palms were destroyed (the EPPO Secretariat had previously no confirmed data on the occurrence of P. archon in Baleares). P. archon is present in Comunidad Valenciana (Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis), and under official control.
Pepino mosaic potexvirus (EPPO Alert List): Andalucía (increasing incidence in some parts, isolated outbreaks reported in Granada and Malaga provinces), Cataluña (found in some tested samples but no damage in the crops), Murcia. Absent in País Vasco.
Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List): Asturias (found in several nurseries on Rhododendron and Viburnum), Islas Baleares (found again in 2004 on imported Rhododendron and Camellia). In all cases, eradication measures were applied. Absent in País Vasco.
Plum pox potyvirus (EPPO A2 list): during 2004 surveys, it was not detected in Castilla y León.
Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 list): 1 outbreak was detected on tomatoes in the province of Granada (Andalucía). Few positive potato samples were detected in Castilla y León. The bacterium was also detected in a ware potato store in País Vasco. In all cases, eradication measures were applied.
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO Alert List): found in Comunidad Valenciana, under official control.
Senecio inaequidens (candidate on the EPPO list of invasive plants): Cataluña (widespread, but it seems that its expansion has been diminishing during these last years; surveys will continue).
Sicyos angulatus (EPPO Alert List): Cataluña (weed in maize fields near Lleida, under official control).
Tomato chlorosis crinivirus (EPPO A2 List): Andalucía (it affects a high percentage of tomato crops).
Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (EPPO A2 list): Andalucía (mainly found on Capsicum annuum), Asturias (a new outbreak was found on tomatoes), Cataluña (damage is decreasing), Islas Baleares (serious problem on tomatoes), Madrid (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (chard), Capsicum and tomatoes under glasshouse), Murcia, Navarra (1 glasshouse on tomato and Capsicum), País Vasco (a few outbreaks on Capsicum, lettuce, tomatoes, and several ornamental plants in glasshouses).
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (EPPO A2 list): Andalucía (high incidence on tomato crops), Islas Baleares (causing serious problems), Cataluña (larger areas but lower intensity), Extremadura (1 isolated outbreak was found near Vegas Altas), Murcia.
Xanthomonas fragariae (EPPO A2 list): Andalucía.
* New records
Anonymous (2004) Incidencia de plagas y enfermedades en las Comunidades Autónomas en 2004.
Phytoma-España no. 168, 17-58 and no. 169, 16-55.