First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in Slovenia
The NPPO of Slovenia informed the EPPO Secretariat that Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (Nucleorhabdovirus - EMDV) was found for the first time in 2003. EMDV was detected on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Belle) showing unusual symptoms of chlorotic spots and wrinkles on Fruit, narrow and necrotic leaves. In June 2004, EMDV was also detected in potato crops (Solanum tuberosum cvs. Bistra, Désirée, Discovery, KIS94-1/5-14, Pšata). Infected plants showed severe dwarfing, leaf curling, reduced leaf size, small tubers produced in low numbers. Brown spots were clearly visible in cross sections of tubers. All infected plants were destroyed to prevent any further spread of the virus. In 2005, no further findings were made, and the NPPO of Slovenia now considers that EMDV is no longer present on its territory.
EPPO note: EMDV was first described in Italy on aubergine (S. melongena) in 1969 and occurs in many countries around the Mediterranean Basin. It has been recorded on vegetable crops, ornamental plants (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lonicera, Pittosporum) and weeds (Solanum nigrum). On vegetable crops, EMDV has mainly been found on Solanaceae such as: Capsicum annuum (pepper), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Solanum melongena (aubergine), Solanum tuberosum (potato); and on Curcurbitaceae such as: Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Cucumis melo (melon). The economic impact of EMDV is considered to be minor because the incidence of field infection is usually very low. In vegetatively propagated crops, EMDV can be disseminated through infected propagating material. In the field, the distribution pattern of infected plants suggests transmission by aerial vectors of low efficiency. So far, one leafhopper species Agallia vorobjevi (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) has been shown to transmit the virus.
The currently known distribution of EMDV is the following:
EPPO region: Algeria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Morocco, Portugal, Spain (Islas Canarias, and found in 2005 on the mainland), Tunisia, Turkey.
Africa: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.
Asia: Afghanistan, Israel, Iran, Jordan, Turkey.
NPPO of Slovenia, 2006-05.
Mavrič I, Tušek Žnidarič M, Viršček Marn M, Dolničar P, Mehle N, Lesemann DE, Ravnikar M (2006) First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in potato and tomato in Slovenia. New Disease Reports. http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/july2006/2006-09.asp
Other useful references:
Aramburu J, Galipienso L, Tornos T, Matas M (2006) First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in mainland Spain. New Disease Reports. http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/jan2006/2006-03.asp
Babaie GH, Izadpanah K (2003) Vector transmission of eggplant mottle dwarf virus in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 151, 679-682.
Chatzivassiliou EK, Efthimiou K, Drossos E, Papadopoulou A, Poimenidis G, Katis NI, (2004) A survey of tobacco viruses in tobacco crops and native flora in Greece. European Journal of Plant Pathology 110, 1011-1023.
Cherif C, Martelli GP (1985) Outbreaks and new records. Tunisia. Mottled dwarf of eggplant. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 33(4), 166-167.
Ciuffo M, Roggero P, Masenga V, Stravato VM (1999) Natural infection of muskmelon by eggplant mottled dwarf rhabdovirus in Italy. Plant Disease 83(1), p 78.
Katis NI, Chatzivassiliou EK, Clay C, Avgelis I, Manoussopoulos I, Lecoq H (2000) Occurrence of eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus (EMDV) in tobacco and cucumber crops in Greece. Phytopatologia Mediterranea 39(2), p 319
Kostova D, Masenga V, Milne RG, Lisa V (2001) First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in cucumber and pepper in Bulgaria. New Disease Reports. http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/jul2001/2001-30.asp
Martelli GP, Cherif C (1987) Eggplant mottle dwarf virus associated with vein yellowing of honeysuckle. Journal of Phytopathology 119(1), 32-41.
Martelli GP, Hamadi A (1986) Occurrence of eggplant mottle dwarf virus in Algeria. Plant Pathology 35(4), 595-597.