EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 11 - 2007 Num. article: 2007/216

Invasive Bactrocera species in Africa

A webpage on ‘Invasive fruit fly pests in Africa’ provides useful information about the current situation of four Asian Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae) which have been introduced into Africa. It also provides information on the identification of these species. The EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new information.

Bactrocera cucurbitae (EPPO A1 List)
In Africa, B. cucurbitae was probably introduced a long time ago. Although it was restricted to eastern Africa for several decades, it has recently been reported from western Africa and the Seychelles. The EPPO Secretariat had previously no data on the occurrence of B. cucurbitae in: Benin*, Nigeria*, Senegal*, Togo* and Uganda*. There was an old record of B. cucurbitae in Egypt (in the Lower Nile Valley) but extensive surveys have recently been made and could not detect the pest. It is now felt that this record is erroneous and that B. cucurbitae should be considered as absent from Egypt.

Bactrocera invadens (EPPO Alert List)
In Africa, B. invadens was first found in Kenya in 2003 (see EPPO RS 2005/085) and it continued to spread within this continent. Its presence is now also reported from Côte d’Ivoire* and Ethiopia*. It is considered that B. invadens originates from Asia (Sri Lanka) but its situation there is not well known. It was recently recorded in Bhutan (see EPPO RS 2007/150) and in the south of India. In India*, the presence of B. invadens was reported for the first time during surveys conducted from May to August 2005 (Sithanantham et al., 2006).

The following list of host plants of B. invadens in Africa has been gathered (no data was available on its hosts in Asia):
Anacardiaceae:        Anacardium occidentale, Mangifera indica, Sclerocarya birrea,
Spondias cytherea.
Annonaceae:        Annona muricata.
Caricaceae:        Carica papaya.
Cucurbitaceae:        Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis figarei, Cucumis sativus.
Combretaceae:        Terminalia catappa.
Dracaenaceae:        Dracaena steudneri.
Ebenaceae:        Diospyros montana.
Flacourtiaceae:        Flacourtia indica.
Lauraceae:        Persea americana.
Musaceae:        Musa sp.
Myrtaceae:        Psidium guajava.
Rosaceae:        Eriobotrya japonica, Prunus persica.
Rutaceae:        Citrus limon, C. paradisi, C. reticulata, C. sinensis, Fortunella japonica.
Sapotaceae:        Chrysophyllum albidum.
Solanaceae:        Lycopersicon esculentum.
Strychnaceae:        Strychnos mellodora.

Bactrocera latifrons
In Africa, the first specimens were trapped at the beginning of 2006 in Morogoro, in Tanzania (see EPPO RS 2006/228). Surveys have shown that this species is widespread in Tanzania but with low numbers because of its limited host range. In 2007, it was found for the first time in Kenya* near the border with Tanzania.

Bactrocera zonata (EPPO A1 List)
On the African continent, B. zonata was first recorded in the Kalubia governorate in Egypt in 1993 on Psidium guajava, and then in the Fayoum governorate. In 1994, B. zonata was found in the Alexandria and Giza governorates on different fruit trees cultivated in private gardens. By 1997, the pest was widespread in Egypt (even occurring in desert areas such as the oases of Dakhla, Kharga, and Sinai). In Africa, B. zonata is also reported from Libya*, the islands of the Indian Ocean (Mauritius and Réunion). In the Arabian Peninsula, B. zonata is reported in Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen*.

*        The EPPO Secretariat had previously no data on the occurrence of the pest in the country concerned.


Sithanantham S, Selvaraj P, Boopathi T (2006) The fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Tephritidae: Diptera) new to India. Pestology 33(9), 36-37.

INTERNET (last retrieved in 2007-12).
Invasive Fruit Fly Pests in Africa. A diagnostic tool and information reference for the four Asian species of fruit fly (Diptera, Tephritidae) that have become accidentally established as pests in Africa, including the Indian Ocean Islands, by Marc De Meyer, Salah Mohamed and Ian M. White.