Invasive species in the flora of the Upper Volga Basin
The territory of the Upper Volga basin is 203500 km², it is situated in the Central part of European Russia and comprises the following administrative regions: Ivanovo, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Vladimir and Tver’. The flora comprises 760 alien species from 73 families, of which 135 (17.8%) are naturalized in natural and semi-natural communities. 55 of them (7.2%) are considered invasive.
In forests, the following plants are often found as invaders and form the underbrush: Acer negundo, Amelanchier spicata (EPPO list of invasive alien plants), Physocarpus opulifolius, Sambucus racemosa, Aronia mitschurinii, Prunus cerasus, Cotoneaster lucidus, Crataegus monogyna and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. Herbaceous species such as Dianthus barbatus, Festuca trachyphylla, Impatiens parviflora and Juncus tenuis are also present.
In meadows, Aster salignus, Aster lanceolatus, Epilobium adenocaulon, Lupinus polyphyllus, Oenothera biennis and Saponaria officinalis are found.
In open sand habitats and dry slopes, Chaenorchinum minus, Erigeron canadensis, Lepidium densiflorum, Senecio viscosus, etc. are recorded. The species considered the most invasive are Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, Echinocystis lobata, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera and Solidago canadensis.
There are also some examples of local invasives: Galega orientalis, Symphytum x uplandicum in Ivanovo region, Zizania latifolia in Korstroma region, Valisneria spiralis in Yaroslavl region, Anisantha tectorum, Linaria canadensis in Vladimir region. Alien plants such as Festuca arundinacea, Oenothera rubricaulis, Populus alba, Populus balsamifera, Reynoutria japonica, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Viburnum lantana, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Cyclachaena xanthiifolia, Xanthium strumarium and Xanthium albinum also successfully compete with native species.
Borissova EA (2006) Invasive species in the flora of the Upper Volga Basin. In: Neobiota. From Ecology to Conservation. 4th European Conference on Biological Invasions. Vienna (Austria), 2006-09-27/29, BfN-Skripten 184: page 85.