EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 10 - 2006 Num. article: 2006/208

Exotic bark- and wood-boring Coleoptera in the USA

A recent review by Dr Haack (2006) presents detailed lists of exotic bark- and wood-boring Coleoptera which are now considered as established in continental USA or which have been intercepted during the last decades. These lists have been compiled from online searches of scientific literature and websites and consultation with entomologists.

  • Recent establishments
During the 21-year period from 1985 to 2005, at least 25 species of exotic bark- and wood-boring Coleoptera have been able to establish after their introduction into continental USA. Of the 25 exotic beetles listed in the Table below, 8 species were detected during official surveillance programmes. The others were discovered by the public who reported damaged trees or by insect collectors and scientists during field work.

Table adapted from Haack (2006) – Exotic bark- and wood-feeding Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytidae reported to be established in continental USA (first reports from 1985 to 2005).

Probable origin
Fist collected or reported
in the USA
Current situation in the USA

Agrilus planipennis
(EPPO A1 list)
2002, Michigan
Severe pest, killing Fraxinus. Isolated populations found in Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia. Phytosanitary measures in place.
Agrilus prionurus
2003, Texas
Pest of Sapindus drummondii. Found in an urban environment (Austin, Texas).


Anoplophora glabripennis
(EPPO A1 list)
1996, New York
Pest of hardwood species, found in urban areas of Illinois and New Jersey. In 2005, no infested trees were found in Illinois, a few trees were located in New Jersey and New York. An eradication programme is ongoing.
Callidiellum rufipenne
1997, North Carolina
Pest of Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Juniperus, Thuja. Populations were later found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York and Rhode Island.
Phoracantha recurva
1995, California
Eucalyptus pest, only found in California so far.
Sybra alternans
1992, Florida
Collected from dead limbs of Ficus plants. As of 2005, no reports of economic damage or expansion in Florida or elsewhere in the USA.
Tetrops praeusta
1996, Maine
First found in northeastern USA and then in Quebec, Canada. Many host plants but most commonly found on Rosacae, such as Crataegus and Malus. No reports of economic damage from North America.

Scolytidae (ambrosia beetles)

Ambrosiodmus lewisi
1990, Pennsylvania
Collected from dead Quercus branches in Pennsylvania. In Asia, it has a broad host range (Acer, Ailanthus, Alnus, Cinnamomum, Ficus, Populus, Prunus, Quercus, Rhus, Salix). No further reports of damage or expansion in the USA, since 1990.
Euwallacea fornicatus
2002, Florida
Collected from the trunk of a live Delonix regia tree. In 2004, found in California attacking live Acer, Alnus, Platanus, Robinia. Also reported to be established from Panama.
Xyleborinus alni
1996, Washington
In North America, it was first trapped in British Columbia (Canada) in 1995, and in nearby Washington State (USA). Then also caught in several eastern US states. Alnus is the only host reported in the USA. No damage reports from North America.
Xyleborus atratus
First collected from Tennessee and then from Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and other eastern US states. No published reports of hosts or damage in the USA.
Xyleborus glabratus
2002, Georgia
First collected from Georgia, then Florida and South Carolina. It has been associated with mortality of Persea borbonia, and also collected from live Sassafras albidum.
Xyleborus pelliculosus
1987, Pennsylvania
First collected from Pennsylvania, then Maryland (1989) and also from other eastern US states. No published reports of hosts or damage in the USA. Reported hosts in Asia are: Acer, Castanopsis, Quercus and Shiia.

Xyleborus pfeilii
1992, Maryland
First collected from Maryland, then California, Oregon and British Columbia (Canada). The only reported host in the USA is Asimina triloba in Maryland. No report of economic damage.
Xyleborus seriatus
2005, Massachusetts
Recent finding and so far, no reports of hosts, damage or expansion in USA. In Asia, many conifer and hardwood species are reported as hosts (Acer, Aesculus, Betula Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Fagus, Larix, Pinus, Prunus, Quercus, Thuja, Tilia and Tsuga).
Xyleborus similis
2002, Texas
First trapped in Texas in 2002, since then no reports of hosts, damage or expansion in the USA. Outside the USA, reported hosts include Hevea, Pinus, Shorea and Theobroma.
Xylosandrus mutilatus
2002, Florida and Mississippi
First collected in 2002, in Florida and Mississippi (although it was probably present as early as 1999) and in 2005 in Texas. No host or damage reports from the USA. In Asia, many hardwood species are reported as hosts, including Acer, Albizia, Carpinus, Castanea, Cornus, Fagus, Lindera, Osmanthus and Swietenia.
Scolytidae (bark beetles)

Hylastes opacus
1987, New York
Now also found in Oregon. In the USA, it has been collected from recently cut pine stumps and logs. No reports of economic damage. The main hosts are Pinus but it can infest Larix and Picea. Also reported from Canada (Quebec, Ontario) and, as established, in South Africa.
Hylurgops palliatus
2001, Pennsylvania
Trapped first in Pennsylvania in 2001 and later in New York and Ohio. No damage reports. In Eurasia, its hosts are Abies, Cedrus, Larix, Picea and Pinus.
Hylurgus ligniperda
2000, New York
This Pinus bark beetle was first trapped in New York in 1994, but established populations were only confirmed in 2000. Also reported in 2003 from California. No reports of damage. Introductions reported from Australia, Brazil, Chile, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa and Uruguay.
Orthotomicus erosus
2004, California
Pinus bark beetle mainly collected from recently cut logs and stumps. No reports of economic damage. Introductions reported from Chile, South Africa and Swaziland. Record from Fiji is apparently incorrect.
Phloeosinus armatus
1989, California
Cupressus bark beetle originating from the Mediterranean region. In the USA, still restricted to California but its range is expanding. It was collected both from live trees and cut logs.
Pityogenes bidentatus
1988, New York
In 2002, it was also found in Pennsylvania. The main host is Pinus, but Abies, Larix, Picea and Pseudotsuga can also be infested. In New York, it has been reported from both Pinus trees and logs.
Scolytus schevyrewi
(EPPO Alert List)
2003, Colorado
First reported from Colorado in 2003 but then rapidly found throughout most of western USA. So far, only observed in Ulmus, from both live trees and cut wood (see EPPO RS 2005/181)
Tomicus piniperda
1992, Ohio
As of 2005, it is known to occur in 14 US states and 2 Canadian provinces. Phytosanitary measures have been implemented since 1993. Low level of damage reported, so far.

Anoplophora chinensis (EPPO A1 list) is not known to be established in the USA but was once found. In 2001, 5 adults emerged and took flight from bonsai Acer trees imported from Korea and held outdoors in a nursery in Washington State (see EPPO RS 2002/019). An eradication programme was initiated in 2002, about 1000 potential host plants within a radius of 200 m around the nursery were removed, and treatments with a systemic insecticide were applied on 1500 additional potential hosts growing within a 200-400 m radius. No other A. chinensis or associated damage has been reported since.

Other Coleoptera:
Since the 1800s, relatively few bostrichids, curculionids, lyctids, and platypodids have been reported as established in the USA. So far, there are no records of establishment of exotic wood-feeding Platypodidae.

Current situation in the USA

Heterobostrychus aequalis, Sinoxylon conigerum, Xylopsocus capucinus
All considered to be established in Florida
Heterobostrychus brunneus
Considered to be established in California
Heterobostrychus hamatipennis
May be established in Florida
Sinoxylon ceratoniae
May be established in California

Cryptorhynchus lapathi
European weevil first reported in New York in 1882

Lyctus brunneus, Lyctus linearis, Trogoxylon aequale
All considered to be established in USA
Minthea rugicollis
Considered to be established in Florida in the 1990s but this was later questioned.

  • Interceptions
Data from interceptions has also been compiled in this study. During a 16-year period from 1985 to 2000, 8341 interceptions have been made in the USA because of the presence of Coleoptera. In order of importance the following groups of pests have been found: wood-associated Scolytidae (5008 interceptions, corresponding to 60%), Cerambycidae (1642), wood-associated Curculionidae (875), Bostrichidae (414), Buprestidae (245), Lyctidae (102), Platypodidae (55). Out of the 8341 interceptions, approximately 72% were identified to the genus and 35 % to the species level. Although the type of wood article was not systematically stated on the interceptions (‘wood’ was simply mentioned), the most common types of wood articles infested were crates, followed by dunnage and pallets. Most intercepted consignments originated mainly from Europe (57%), followed in frequency by Asia, Central America, South America, Africa, Caribbean and Pacific. However, the relative ranking of the continents varied over time (e.g. decrease of European origins with an increase of Asian origins in recent years). Details about the insect species intercepted and countries of origin can be found in the original paper. The value of total US imports significantly increased over time from 336 billion USD in 1985 to 1218 billion USD in 2000, but at the same time the yearly number of wood-associated insect interceptions has fallen. This could be explained by changing practices of importers, such as the replacement of solid wood by other materials less suitable for insects (e.g. plywood, particle board or metal), as well as by the implementation of US import regulations (since 1996) that required that all un-manufactured solid wood items should be ‘totally free from bark’ or else be certified by the exporting country as treated against wood pests. In addition, the USA formally supported the implementation of ISPM no. 15. However, it is pointed out that ISPM no. 15 does not address the problem of re-infestation of wood after treatment (especially if bark is still present), and that pests can still be moved through other pathways such as bonsai trees, nursery stock, household decorations (using tree trunks, bark or fruit).


Haack RA (2006) Exotic bark- and wood-boring Coleoptera in the United States: recent establishments and interceptions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(1), 269-288.