New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By browsing through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
Brenneria quercina (formerly EPPO Alert List) occurs in Italy. Its presence was reported in the province of Viterbo (Lazio region) together with other pests on declining hazelnut (Corylus avellana) trees (Bucini et al., 2005). Present, found in Lazio region.
Moko disease of banana, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 List), was reported for the first time in June 2007 on the island of St Vincent, St Vincent and the Grenadines (ProMED, 2007). Present, no detail.
Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae – EPPO Alert List) was reported for the first time in Puerto Rico in 2006 and St Thomas Island (US Virgin Islands) in 2007 (USDA-ASR, 2007). Present, no detail.
In Austria Scaphoideus titanus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), vector of grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma (EPPO A2 List) was recorded for the first time in 2004. However, grapevine flavescence dorée has never been found in Austria. S. titanus was found in Styria in vineyards close to the Slovenian border (Steffek et al., 2007). Present, first found in 2004 in Styria.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus – EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from China. It was detected in March 2006 in tomato plants showing symptoms of yellow mosaic, in the province of Shanghai. Disease incidence reached up to 90% (Wu et al., 2006). Present, first found in 2006 in Shanghai province.
In July 2007, a single male Bactrocera dorsalis (EPPO A1 List) was caught in Valrico, Florida (US). Eradication measures are being applied (DOACS press release, 2007).
In 2005, Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus – EPPO Alert List) was reported for the first time on onion plants in Texas, USA (Miller et al., 2006).
In 2003, Phakopsora euvitis (EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Bayer and Dressler da Costa, 2006).
In the USA, two outbreaks of Puccinia horiana (EPPO A2 List) were reported in September 2006 and February 2007 in Pennsylvania and California respectively. In both cases, eradication measures were immediately taken (NAPPO, 2006 and 2007).
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus – EPPO A2 List) was reported for the first time from the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, in autumn 2005 (Brown and Idris, 2006).
During surveys carried out in 2000/2001 on virus diseases of vegetable crops, Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV – EPPO A2 List) was detected in the central part of Albania on outdoor vegetable crops (Capsicum, tomato, courgette) and weeds (Solanum nigrum). Surprisingly, it was not detected in glasshouse vegetable crops. As a result of these surveys, TSWV infections were considered moderately important in Albania (Finetti-Sialer et al., 2006).
Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) was reported in Taiwan in 1993, causing leaf scorch on pear (see EPPO RS 94/049). Strains from Taiwan were compared with strains isolated from North and South America causing grapevine Pierce’s disease, almond leaf scorch and citrus variegated chlorosis. Comparison of PCR amplicon sequences showed that strains from Taiwan formed a cluster which was distinct from the other known clusters of X. fastidiosa (Chen et al., 2006).
Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (Pospiviroid – EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Solanum jasminoides in the Netherlands (Verhoeven et al., 2006).
Huanglongbing, caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ is reported for the first time on kumquat (Fortunella margarita) in Taiwan (Tsai et al., 2006).
In Mexico, Phakopsora pachyrhizi (EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in the State of Veracruz. The disease was found on Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean) near Papantla, in January 2007 (NAPPO Pest Alert System, 2007).
Triticum dicoccum (emmer wheat) is reported to be a potential host plant of Tilletia indica (EPPO A1 List). In a recent study, several Italian emmer wheat cultivars were found to be highly susceptible to T. indica (Riccioni et al., 2006).
Tobacco ringspot virus (Nepovirus – EPPO A2 List) was identified for the first time in symptomatic pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo) in Illinois, USA. Affected plants showed mild mosaic and leaf yellowing (Jossey and Babadoost, 2006).
In Florida (US), Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 List) was detected in the aquatic weeds Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants), H. bonariensis and Polygonum pennsylvaticum growing in irrigation ponds (Hong et al., 2006).
Bayer TM, Dressler da Costa IF (2006) [Occurrence of Phakopsora euvitis Ono, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul]. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria 36(4), 1307-1308 (in Portuguese).
Brown JK, Idris AM (2006) Introduction of the exotic monopartite Tomato yellow leaf curl virus into West Coast Mexico. Plant Disease 90(10), p 1360.
Bucini D, Balestra GM, Pucci C, Paparatti B, Speranza S, Proietti Zolla C, Varvaro L (2005) Acta Horticulturae no. 686, 435-443 (abst.).
Chen J, Su C, Chang C (2006) Multigenic sequence comparison of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strains from Taiwan to strains from Americas. Phytopathology 96(6) S23.
DOACS (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services) Press Release (2007-07-12) Fruit fly found in Valrico. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/press/2007/07122007.html
Finetti-Sialer M, Mërkuri J, Tauro G, Myrta A, Gallitelli D (2006) Viruses of vegetable crops in Albania. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35(3), 491-495.
Hong J, Ji P, Momol TM, Olson SM, Jones JB (2006) Association of Ralstonia solanacearum in irrigation ponds and on semi-aquatic weeds in North Florida. Phytopathology 96(6) S51.
Jossey S, Babadoost M (2006) First report of Tobacco ringspot virus in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) in Illinois. Plant Disease 90(10), p 1361.
Miller ME, Saldana RR, Black MC, Pappu HR (2006) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on onion (Allium cepa) in Texas. Plant Disease 90(10), p 1359.
NAPPO Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports (2006-09-27) Chrysanthemum white rust, Puccinia horiana, found in Pennsylvania - United States. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=231
NAPPO Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports (2007-03-09) Chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) in California. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=256
NAPPO Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports (2007-07-12) Detection of Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in yam bean crops in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=267
ProMED posting of 2007-06-05 (20070606.1825). Moko disease, banana – Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. http://www.promedmail.org
Riccioni L, Valvassori, M, di Giambattista G, Porta-Puglia A (2006) Emmer wheat, a potential new host of Tilletia indica. European Journal of Plant Pathology 116(2), 167-170.
Steffek R, Reisenzein H, Zeisner N (2007) Analysis of the pest risk from Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma to Austrian viticulture. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 37(1), 191-203.
Tsai CH, Su HJ, Liao YC, Hung TH (2006) First report of the causal agent of huanglongbing (‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’) infecting kumquat in Taiwan. Plant Disease 90(10), p 1360.
USDA-ARS (2007) A tiny menace island-hops the Caribbean. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may07/island0507.htm?pf=1
Verhoeven JTJ, Jansen CCC, Roenhorst JW (2006) First report of Potato virus M and Chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Solanum jasminoides. Plant Disease 90(10), p 1359.
Wu JB, Dai FM, Zhou XP (2006) First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China. Plant Disease 90(10), p 1359.