Successful control of the introduced species Ctenarytaina eucalypti with Psyllaephagus pilosus in Germany
The blue gum psyllid Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Homoptera, Psyllidae) originating from Australia, has been accidentally introduced into many parts of the world. In America and in Europe, it caused severe damage on Eucalyptus cut-foliage plantations. In Europe, it was first reported in the United Kingdom in 1922 and then in France, Portugal, Italy, Spain and Ireland. C. eucalypti was successfully controlled in California (US), the United Kingdom and France by releasing a hymenopteran parasitoid Psyllaephagus pilosus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). In Germany, several introductions of C. eucalypti have been noted. The pest was first recorded in Sachsen in 2000 on Eucalyptus globosus, in the botanical garden of Dresden University of Technology. However, the spontaneous attack by P. pilosus during the following 2 years successfully eradicated the pest. In order to better control the unintentionally introduced pests, the authors of this paper stressed the need to establish regulations at national and EU level for the safe use of biological agents which could be based on the existing FAO and EPPO standards (FAO, 2005; EPPO 1999, 2000 & 2002).
Schnee H, Voigt D, Kaufer B (2006) [Biological control of the blue gum psyllid Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) by the encyrtid Psyllaephagus pilosus Noyes (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) a success not only in California and Western Europe but also in Saxony.] Gesunde Pflanzen 58(2), 99-106.
EPPO (1999) EPPO Standard PM6/1(1) Safe use of biological control. First import and release of exotic biological control agents for research under contained conditions. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 29(2), 279-272. Also available on-line: http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOStandards/biocontrol.htm
EPPO (2000) EPPO Standard PM6/2(1) Import and release of exotic biological control agents. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 31(1), 29-36. Also available on-line: http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOStandards/biocontrol.htm
EPPO (2002) EPPO Standard PM6/3(2) List of biological control agents widely used in the EPPO region. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOStandards/biocontrol_web/bio_list.htm
FAO (2005) ISPM no. 3 Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms. FAO, Rome. Also available on-line: https://www.ippc.int/id/13399?language=en