New species of Cerambycidae identified in Israel
Longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) which develop inside the wood or under the bark are easily transported over long distances by wood and wood products. The introduction of such insects into new areas may lead to their establishment, and some of them may become pests. Until now in Israel, it was considered that wood imports have led to the introduction and establishment of 3 species of Cerambycidae: Phoracantha semipunctata (formerly EPPO A2 List, eucalyptus borer), Batocera rufomaculata (fig borer) and Xylotrechus smei (which was erroneously recorded as Xylotrechus stebbingi). Recent studies have showed that 5 new species of Cerambycidae could be added to this list of introduced longhorned beetles. Phoracantha recurva and Xystrocera globosa were collected in the wild and are thus considered as established in Israel, whereas Chlorophorus annularis, Neoplocaederus basalis and Rhagium inquisitor were reared on imported timber and should be regarded as interceptions only. In their paper, Friedman et al. (2008), provide the following details about geographical distribution and host plants of these insect species.
- Intercepted species
In Israel, C. annularis was reared on a 2 m-long musical instrument (resembling a flute) made of a single bamboo stem, brought by a tourist from India in 1997. Approximately 100 adults emerged in May 1998. C. annularis is a borer of bamboo (Bambusa, Dendracalamus, Sinobambusa, Sinocalamus and Phyllostachys) which has also been reported on other hosts. In Asia it is considered as a minor pest of stored bamboo (it does not damage living plants). C. annularis is widely distributed in Asia, and also occurs in Oceania. It has been intercepted in North America and Europe on consignments of bamboo and bamboo products.
Asia: Cambodia, China (North-East and South including Hainan Islands), East Timor, India (Assam, Punjab), Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Japan (including Ryukyu and Bonin Islands), Korea Republic, Laos, Malaysia (West, Sarawak), Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.
North America: USA (Hawaii).
Oceania: Australia, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In Israel, N. basalis was reared on a tree trunk imported from West Africa to the port of Haifa (2 adult specimens emerged in July 1966*). This insect is reported to occur in West, Central and East Africa.
Africa: Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda.
In Israel, R. inquisitor was reared from one larva found in December 2006 under the bark of a tree trunk imported from Russia (the adult emerged in May 2007). This species is a pest of conifers (Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus), and is occasionally found on broadleaved trees (Betula, Fagus, Quercus, Populus). It is reported from Europe, Northern Asia (excluding China) and North America (Canada, USA).
- Established species
In Israel since 2001, 3 specimens have been collected in natural habitats, sometimes near eucalyptus, in lower Galilee, Samaria and the Central coastal plain, but is it likely that it has spread to other areas. P. recurva is a pest of eucalyptus trees which originates from Australia but which has largely expanded its range of distribution during the last 20 years.
EPPO region: Israel, Greece, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia.
Africa: Malawi, South Africa, Zambia.
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay.
Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea.
In Israel, X. globosa was first detected in Nizzanim (March 2002) and Tel Aviv (June 2006). It has now become abundant in the Southern coastal plain, developing in the wood of ornamental Fabaceae trees. X. globosa is a pest of Asian origin which attacks a wide range of wild and cultivated trees belonging to Fabaceae (Acacia, Albizzia, Bauhinia, Cassia etc.), Malvaceae (Grewia, Salmalia) and Rosaceae (Prunus).
EPPO region: Egypt, Israel.
Africa: Egypt, Madagascar, Mauritius (including Rodrigues Island), Seychelles.
Asia: India (including Andaman Islands), Indonesia (Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.
North America: USA (Hawaii).
Central America and Caribbean: Puerto Rico.
Oceania: Australia (Northern Territory), Papua New Guinea.
* These specimens were ‘rediscovered’ after the insect collection to which they were added in 1966 was moved to another place in Israel.
Friedman ALL, Rittner O, Chikatunov VI (2008) Five new invasive species of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Israel. Phytoparasitica 36(3), 242-246.