EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 07 - 2007 Num. article: 2007/124

A review of Plum pox virus

At the initiative of Drs Capote, Cambra, and Llácer from IVIA Valencia (ES), a review of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV - EPPO A2 List) was published in the Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. It includes a large number of papers written by PPV experts on the following topics: geographical distribution, host plants and symptomatology, genetics, diagnostics, epidemiology, control, breeding, plant-virus interactions. The EPPO Secretariat has extracted below some detailed information.

  • PPV strains
According to their serological and molecular properties, PPV isolates have now been grouped into 6 types or strains (the main ones being M and D):
- PPV-D (Dideron)
- PPV-M (Marcus)
- PPV-EA (El Amar)
- PPV-C (Cherry)
- PPV-W (Winona) – these isolates were found in Canada and found distinct from all other known strains. Because all infected trees have been removed, these strains are no longer found in the field.
- PPV-Rec (recombinant between D and M strains).

  • Geographical distribution
PPV was first described in Bulgaria in 1932, although the disease had been observed earlier (as early as 1917-1918). It progressively spread to a large part of Europe, around the Mediterranean Basin and reached the Near East. More recently, it was found in the Americas and in Asia. Detailed information is provided in this review about the countries listed below. In addition, it can be noted that PPV is reported for the first time from Pakistan and that recent surveys have confirmed that PPV is still absent from Finland, Lebanon, Australia, and New Zealand.

EPPO region: Albania (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-Rec), Bosnia and Herzegovina (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-Rec), Bulgaria (PPV-D, PPV-M), Croatia (PPV-D, PPV-M), Czech Republic (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-Rec), Egypt (PPV-EA), France (PPV-D, PPV-M), Germany (PPV-D, PPV-M, probably also PPV-Rec), Greece (PPV-D, PPV-M), Hungary (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-C), Italy (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-Rec, PPV-C no longer found), Lithuania (PPV-D), Moldova (PPV-C), Netherlands, Norway (PPV-D), Poland (PPV-D, PPV-M), Romania (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-C, PPV-Rec), Russia, Serbia (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-Rec), Slovakia (PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-Rec), Slovenia (PPV-D, PPV-M), Spain (PPV-D, PPV-M was eradicated), Switzerland, Tunisia (PPV-D), Turkey (PPV-D, PPV-M), Ukraine, United Kingdom (PPV-D).

Africa: Egypt (PPV-EA), Tunisia (PPV-D).

Asia: China (Hunan Province but no other data has been obtained since 2003), Iran, Kazakhstan (PPV-D), Pakistan (PPV-D, PPV-Rec; see also EPPO RS 2007/126), Syria (PPV-D, PPV-M).

North America: Canada (Ontario, but eradicated from Nova Scotia; PPV-D, PPV-W eradicated), USA (Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania; PPV-D).

South America: Argentina (PPV-D), Chile (Metropolitan and VI Region; PPV-D).

  • New or confirmed hosts
The following plants have now been confirmed as host plants of PPV. However, the importance of herbaceous plants in the epidemiology of PPV is still being debated.
Ajuga genevensis, Capsella bursa pastoris, Cichorium sp. Cirsium arvense, Clematis sp. Convolvulus arvensis, Euonymus europaea, Lactuca serriola, Ligustrum vulgare, Lythospermum arvensis, Prunus cerasifera, P. japonica, P. mandshurica, P. mexicana, P. persica f. atropurpurea, P. serotina, P. spinosa, P. blireana, Rorippa sylvestris, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Veronica hederifolia.


Capote N, Cambra M, Llácer G, Petter F, Platts LG, Roy AS, Smith IM (eds) (2006) A review of Plum pox virus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 36(2), 201-349.