EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 06 - 2007 Num. article: 2007/116

Description of new subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa

Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) induces distinct diseases on its numerous host plants (e.g. Pierce disease on grapevine, variegated chlorosis on citrus, leaf scorch on various tree species). Several molecular studies on the different strains of X. fastidiosa suggested that they could be grouped into subspecies. So far, the following 4 subspecies have been proposed:

X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)
Medicago sativa (alfalfa)
Acer (maple)
Prunus dulcis (almond)
Several weeds
X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex
Prunus persica (peach)
Ulmus (elm)
Prunus domestica (plum)
Vitis aestivalis
Prunus dulcis (almond)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore)
Other shade trees
X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca
Citrus sinensis
Most probably also strains from Coffea arabica (coffee)
X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi
Nerium oleander (oleander)


Hernandez-Martinez R, Costa HS, Dumenyo CK, Cooksey DA (2006) Differentiation of strains of Xylella fastidiosa infecting grape, almonds, and oleander using a multiprimer PCR assay. Plant Disease 90(11), 1382-1388.
Schaad NW, Postnikova E, Lacy G, Barek-Fatmi M, Chang CJ (2004) Xylella fastidiosa subspecies: X. fastidiosa subsp. piercei [corrected subsp. fastidiosa] subsp. nov., X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex subsp. nov., and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca subsp. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 27(3), 290-300.
Schuenzel EL, Scally M, Stouthamer R, Nunney L (2005) A multigene phylogenetic study of clonal diversity and divergence in North American strains of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(7), 3832-3839.