Situation of Toxoptera citricida in Portugal and Spain
In the EPPO region, Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae – EPPO A2 List) one of the most efficient vectors of Citrus tristeza virus (Closterovirus, CTV – EPPO A2 List), was first detected in 1994 in Madeira (Portugal – EPPO RS 95/007), in 2002 in Asturias (Spain, in water traps), in 2003 in the north of Portugal (RS 2004/130), and in 2004 in the south of Galicia (Spain). From 2006 to 2007, surveys were carried out in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula to determine the distribution of the pest, its host plants and natural enemies. Results showed that T. citricida occurs all along the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula from northern Portugal to Cantabria (with 1 capture in Pais Vasco in 2006). In Spain, T. citricida was detected in Asturias, Cantabria, Galicia (provinces of La Coruña, Lugo, Pontevedra), and in Pais Vasco (province of Vizkaia, only 1 capture in 2006 and none in 2007). In Portugal, T. citricida was found mainly in Entre-Douro e Minho, and a few specimens were caught in adjoining areas in Beira Litoral and Trás-os-Montes. During these studies, it was observed that Chaenomeles speciosa (Rosaceae) was an occasional host for T. citricida, which had not been reported previously. It was also noted that T. citricida was attacked by a relatively large number of natural enemies commonly occurring along the Atlantic coast (mainly Syrphidae and Coccinellidae). Observations showed that T. citricida overwintered in Northern Spain as nymphs or adults on shoots, spines, or at the insertion point of the fruit peduncle, and mainly on lemon trees growing in sheltered areas. Finally, surveys on CTV were conducted from 2005 to 2007 in northern Spain. The virus was only detected in 3 trees (out of 1123 tested trees; i.e. 0.26% rate of infection) and no disease spread was noticed.
The situation of Toxoptera citricida in Spain can be described as follows: Present, found in Asturias, Cantabria, Galicia (provinces of La Coruña, Lugo, Pontevedra), and in Pais Vasco (province of Vizkaia), under official control.
The situation of Toxoptera citricida in Portugal can be described as follows: Present, found in Madeira and in the northern part of the mainland (mainly Entre-Douro e Minho, and adjoining areas in Beira Litoral and Trás-os-Montes).
Hermoso de Mendoza A, Alvarez A, Michelena JM, Gonzáles P, Cambra M (2008) Spread, biology and natural enemies of Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Spain. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal – Plagas 34(1), 77-87 (in Spanish).