New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Arabis mosaic virus (Nepovirus, ArMV - EU Annexes) was reported for the first time in Spain in 2007. ArMV was detected on grapevine in Galicia (in Val de Salnés on Rias Baixas appellation) and in Pais Vasco (in Barriobusto on appellation Rioja). In the infected vineyard in Galicia, the presence of the nematode vector, Xiphinema diversicaudatum, was detected in the soil. A preliminary survey showed that the virus incidence is low and that only a minimal spread occurred. In Spain as a whole, ArMV seems to be rare and associated with the Atlantic biogeographic region (Abelleira et al., 2010).
Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in Greece. In August 2009, damage caused by this psyllid was noticed in Albizia julibrissin trees in the centre of Thessaloniki (Pásztor et al., 2010). In 2009, the presence of A. jamatonica has also been reported from Serbia (Vétek et al., 2009), and Bulgaria in the city of Nessebar (Vétek and Rédei, 2009).
Cowpea mild mottle virus (Carlavirus – EU Annexes) was first found in Southern Iran (Khorestan province) during the 2006 and 2007 soybean growing seasons (Tavassoli et al., 2009). Present, first found in 2006 on soybean in Khorestan province.
In Iran, almond witches’ broom disease has recently been observed in the centre and south of the country. Trees showing different symptoms (yellowing and little leaf) were also observed. Studies were conducted from 2001 to 2005 and showed that several phytoplasmas could be detected in diseased almond trees. They were closely related to ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’ (associated with almond witches’ broom in Lebanon – formerly EPPO Alert List), ‘Ca. P. aurantifolia’, ‘Ca. P. solani’ and ‘Ca. P. trifolii’ (Zirak et al., 2009). Present, in the centre and south.
Radopholus similis (EPPO A2 List) occurs in New Caledonia (Grandison et al., 2009). Present, no details.
Xiphinema rivesi (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Chile where it was first reported in 2002. Experiments showed that X. rivesi populations from Chile were able to transmit Tomato ringspot virus to cucumber test plants (Auger et al., 2009). Present, first found in 2002.
- Detailed records
Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in the Azores (Portugal). It is reported from the islands of Faial, Saõ Jorge and Terceira (Borges et al., 2005).
The presence of Globodera pallida (EPPO A2 List) in Bulgaria was confirmed in 2006. It is the prevalent Globodera species in the Smolian region, and mixed populations with G. rostochiensis were found in the regions of Blagoevgrad, Sofia, Plovdiv, and Pazardzik (Laginova and Hristova, 2009).
Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae – EPPO Alert List) occurs in Shandong province, China (Yang et al., 2009).
Potato purple top disease (EPPO A1 List) occurs in Montana (US). At least 7 distinct phytoplasma strains belonging to 5 different phytoplasma groups (16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrVI, 16SrXVIII) have been reported to cause purple top and related symptoms in potato. In Montana, a phytoplasma belonging to 16SrIII group was detected in diseased potatoes (Lee et al., 2009).
Rice stripe necrosis virus (Benyvirus, RSNV – formerly EPPO Alert List) continues to spread in Latin America due to the international trade of rice seed produced in fields contaminated with RSNV-carrying cytosori of Polymyxa graminis (fungal vector). After the severe disease outbreaks observed in the eastern plains of Columbia in 1991 (EPPO RS 97/019), the virus has been detected in Ecuador, Panama and Brazil. However, no severe outbreaks have been observed in these countries (Lozano and Morales, 2009).
In Turkey, two years after its first discovery in Mersin province (Mediterranean region), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO A2 List) is now widely distributed in parks and gardens over most parts of the Mediterranean and Aegean regions of Turkey (Atakan et al., 2009).
In August 2008, symptoms of grapevine yellows were observed in vineyards near Podgorica, in Montenegro. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of stolbur phytoplasma (associated with bois noir) in diseased samples. A survey showed that stolbur phytoplasma could be detected in all grapevine-growing regions, and that the disease incidence could reach 20% in some vineyards. This is the first time that bois noir is reported from Montenegro (Radonjić et al., 2009).
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (EPPO A2 List) was found 2006 in Zhejiang province, China. It was found in Anthurium andraeanum in a park in Hangzhou (Su et al., 2008).
In Iran, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (EPPO A2 List) was first reported in 2002 from Markazi province. Since then, it has spread from Markazi to neighbouring provinces (e.g. Lorestan, Isfahan and Chahar-Mahaal and Bakhtiari) and it has become one of the major diseases of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Osdaghi et al., 2009).
In the 2000s, Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) was found for the first time on blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) causing a leaf scorch disease in
Oregon Georgia, USA (EPPO RS 2008/074). In May 2008, similar symptoms were observed on Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids in Florida and the presence of X. fastidiosa was confirmed in symptomatic samples (Harmon and Hopkins, 2009).
- Host plants
Surveys of Impatiens walleriana and Verbena hybrids in nurseries located in Fredericton (New Brunswick, Canada) and Verbena hybrids in New Delhi (India) showed widespread infection of Citrus exocortis viroid (Pospiviroid, CEVd) in vegetatively propagated and seed-grown plants. Infected plants did not show any symptoms (Singh et al., 2009).
Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV – EPPO A2 List) has been detected in Opuntia ficus-indica in Spain. Affected plants showed chlorotic mottle and/or mosaic symptoms on fruits, uneven ripening and fruit deformation (Córdoba-Sellés et al., 2010).
Sequencing studies have been carried out to determine the relationships between the following three viruses of Rubus spp:
- Raspberry mottle virus (RMoV) a tentative closterovirus recently found in the USA;
- Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) and Raspberry leaf spot virus (RLSV) which are both components of the raspberry mosaic disease observed in Europe.
Results suggest that these pathogens correspond to isolates of the same virus species. It is proposed that they should all refer to Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) (McGavin and MacFarlane, 2009).
Abelleira A, Mansilla JP, Padilla V, Hita I, Cabaleiro C, Bertolini E, Olmos A, Legorburu JF (2010) First report of Arabis mosaic virus on grapevine in Spain. Plant Disease 94(5), p 635.
Atakan E, Elekçioğlu IH, Gözel U, Güneş Ç, Yüksel O (2009) First report of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar, 1975) (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) isolated from the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver, 1970) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Turkey. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 39(2), 189-193.
Auger J, Leal G, Magunacelaya JC, Esterio M (2009) Xiphinema rivesi from Chile transmits Tomato ringspot virus to cucumber. Plant Disease 93(9), p 971.
Borges PAV, Vieira V, Dinis F, Jarroca S (2005) List of arthropods. In: Borges PAV, Cunha R, Gabriel R, Martins AF, Silva L, Vieira V (eds.) (2005) A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores. Direcção Regional do Ambiente and Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Angra do Heroísmo and Ponta Delgada, 318 pp.
Córdoba-Sellés C, Cebrián C, Alfaro-Fernández, Herrera-Vásquez JA, Torres V, Font I (2010) Molecular detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting cactus pear in Spain. Petria 20(2), p 275.
Grandison GS, Lebegin S, Desprez ZL (2009) Plant-parasitic nematodes on economic crops of New Caledonia. Australasian Plant Pathology 38(4), 408-410 (abst.).
Harmon PF, Hopkins DL (2009) First report of bacterial leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa on Southern highbush blueberry in Florida. Plant Disease 93(11), p 1220.
Laginova M, Hristova T (2009) Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp. in Bulgaria). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 39(1), p 77.
Lee IM, Bottner KD, Sun M (2009) An emerging potato purple top disease associated with a new 16SrIII group phytoplasma in Montana. Plant Disease 93(9), p 970.
Lozano I, Morales F (2009) Molecular characterisation of Rice stripe necrosis virus as a new species of the genus Benyvirus. European Journal of Plant Pathology 124(4), 673-680.
McGavin WJM, MacFarlane SA (2010) Sequence similarities between Raspberry leaf mottle virus, Raspberry leaf spot virus and the closterovirus Raspberry mottle virus. Annals of Applied Biology 156(3), 439-448.
Osdaghi E, Alizadeh A, Shams-Bakhsh M, Lak MR (2009) Evaluation of common bean lines for their reaction to the common bacterial blight pathogen. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 48(3), 461-468.
Pásztor B, Rédei D, Vétek G (2010) First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal 3(1), 25-27.
Radonjić S, Hrnčić S, Jović J, Cvrković T, Krstić O, Krnjajić S, Toševski I (2009) Occurrence and distribution of grapevine yellows caused by stolbur phytoplasma in Montenegro. Journal of Phytopathology 157(11-12), 682-685.
Singh RP, Dilworth AD, Ao X, Singh M, Baranwal VK (2009) Citrus exocortis viroid transmission through commercially-distributed seeds of Impatiens and Verbena plants. European Journal of Plant Pathology 124(4), 691-694.
Su T, Rungnapha K, Luo SB, Zhao LH, Xie GL (2008) [Identification of pathogenic bacteria of new bacterial disease damaging to Anthurium andraeanum in Zhejiang Province]. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry Science and Technology 28(6), 40-42 (abst.).
Tavassoli M, Shahraeen N, Ghorbani S (2008) Detection and some properties of Cowpea mild mottle virus isolated from soybean in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 11(23), 2624-2628 (abst.).
Vétek G, Babič A, Pásztor HB (2009) [Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) - a new pest of silk tree in Serbia]. Biljni Lekar 37(6), 608-613 (in Serbian – abst.).
Vétek G, Rédei D (2009) First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 61(3), 323-325.
Yang ZQ, Yao YX, Qiu LF, Li ZX (2009) A new species of Trissolcus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing eggs of Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in China with comments on its biology. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102(1), 39-47.
Zirak L, Bahar M, Ahoonmanesh A (2009) Characterization of phytoplasmas associated with almond diseases in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 157(11-12), 736-741.