EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 03 - 2007 Num. article: 2007/064

Database of alien plants in Ireland


The database of Alien Plants in Ireland contains detailed information on 715 alien plant species currently occurring in (semi)natural habitats in Ireland (both the Republic of Ireland and Northern-Ireland) as casual, naturalized or invasive. It gives information on the invasiveness, reproduction, morphology, traits and habitats. In this database, invasive plants means “Naturalized plants that produce reproductive offspring, often in very large numbers, at considerable distances from parent plants, and thus have the potential to spread over a considerable area”. In addition, information is available for 198 extinct alien species (not recorded after 1970).
The 65 following species are considered invasive in Ireland. The status of each species in the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) is given, to indicate their invasive behaviour elsewhere in the world. Abundance was ranked as rare (the invasive plant occurs in less than 900 km²), occasional (between 1000 and 4900 km²) or common (occurs in ; 5000 km² and in at least five different vice-counties). The year of first record and mode of introduction are also given.

Species
Family
Origin
GCW status
Abundance
History
Acaena nova-zelandiae
Rosaceae
Australia, New Zealand
W, N, NW, EW
Rare, 600 km²
1952, accidentally introduced with wool, planted for ornamental purposes
Acer pseudoplatanus
Aceraceae
Eurasia
W, GE, EW
Common, 90,500 km²
1610, ornamental and forestry
Acorus calamus
Araceae
Asia
W, EW
Occasional, 1,000 km²
1744, ornamental and medicinal purposes
Allium carinatum
Liliaceae
Eurasia
W
Rare, 900 km²
1825, ornamental and food
Allium triquetrum
Liliaceae
Medit.
N, GE, EW
Common, 11,300 km²
1890, ornamental
Anisantha diandra
Poaceae
Medit.
/
Rare, 500 km²
1894, accidentally introduced with wool and grain and cultivated
Buddleja davidii
Buddlejaceae
Asia
W, QW, NW, GE, EW
Common, 25,300 km²
1857, ornamental
Calystegia pulchra
Convolvulaceae
Asia
/
Common, 8,800 km²
1885, ornamental
Centranthus ruber
Valerianaceae
Medit., Asia
W, GE, EW
Common, 31,200 km²
1866, ornamental
Cornus sericea
Cornaceae
N-Am.
/
Common, 9,400 km²
1858, ornamental
Coronopus didymus
Brassicaceae
Trop. S-Am.
W, EW
Common, 27,700 KM²
1879, ballast
Cotoneaster integrifolius
Rosaceae
Asia
/
Common, 190,200 km²
1902, ornamental
Cotoneaster simonsii
Rosaceae
Asia
W, QW, GE, EW
Common, 10,800 km²
1934, ornamental
Crepis vesicaria
Asteraceae
Medit, Asia
/
Common, 23,500 km²
1866, accidental introduction with grass seeds
Croscomia x croscomiifolia
(= Tritonia x croscomiifolia)
Iridaceae
S-Af., Hort.
/
Common, 66,700 km²
1834, ornamental
Cymbalaria muralis
Scrophulariaceae
Medit.
W, GE, EW
Common, 52,900 km²
1866, ornamental
Elodea canadensis
Hydrocharitaceae
N-Am.
W, SW, QW, N, GE, EW
Common, 38,000 km²
1836, ornamental
Elodea nuttallii (EPPO List of IAS)
Hydrocharitaceae
N-Am.
W, EW
Occasional, 1,500 km²
1984, ornamental
Epilobium brunnescens
Onagraceae
New Zealand
/
Common, 38,400 km²
1933, ornamental
Erica terminalis
Ericaceae
Medit
/
Rare, 100 km²
Ornamental
Fagus sylvatica
Fagaceae
Eur.
/
Common, 70,500 km²
1866, forestry, ornamental?
Fallopia balduschianica
Polygonaceae
Asia
/
Rare, 900 km²
1973, ornamental

Fallopia japonica (EPPO List of IAS)
Polygonaceae
Asia
QW, N, EW
Common, 72,600 km²
1902, ornamental
Fallopia x bohemica (EPPO List of IAS)
Polygonaceae
Asia
/
Occasional, 1,200 km²
1975, ornamental, hybrid
Fuchsia magellanica
Onagraceae
S-Am.
W, GE, EW
Common, 47,600 km²
1907, ornamental, fodder
Gaultheria mucronata
Ericaceae
S-Am.
/
Occasional, 1700 km²
1920, ornamental
Gaultheria shallon
Ericaceae
N-Am.
/
Rare, 600 km²
1962, food and cover
Geranium pyrenaicum
Geraniaceae
Medit, Asia
/
Common, 10,800 km²
1866, ornamental
Gunnera tinctoria
Gunneraceae
S-Am.
SW, QW, EW
Common, 5,300 km²
1935, ornamental
Halogaris micrantha
Halogaraceae
Asia, Australia, New Zealand
/
Rare, 100 km²
Unknown
Hebe x franciscana
Scrophulariaceae
Hort.
/
Occasional, 3,500 km²
1904, ornamental
Heracleum mantegazzianum (EPPO List of IAS)
Apiaceae
Asia
QW, N, EW
Common, 14,200 km²
1860, ornamental
Hippophae rhamnoides
Elaeagnaceae
Eurasia
/
Occasional, 4,300 km²
1835, soil stabilisation
Hordeum murinum
Poaceae
Medit, Asia
/
Occasional, 4,200 km²
1750, wool
Hyacinthoides hispanica
Liliaceae
Euromed.
/
Occasional, 7,500 km²
1887, ornamental
Hyacinthoides non-scripta x H. hispanica
Liliaceae
Euromed.
/
Common, 8,000 km²
1887, ornamental
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (EPPO A2 List)
Apiaceae
N-Am.
QW, N, EW
Rare
2002, ornamental
Impatiens parviflora
Balsaminaceae
Asia
/
Common, 22,600 km²
1906, ornamental
Juncus planifolius
Juncaceae
S-Am. Oceania
/
Rare, 300 km²
Unknown
Lagarosiphon major (EPPO List of IAS)
Hydrocharitaceae
S-Af.
QW, N, EW
Rare, 700 km²
1966, ornamental
Lagurus ovatus
Poaceae
Medit.
W, GE, EW
Rare, 200 km²
1874, ballast, ornamental
Lemna minuta
Lemanceae
Am.
QW
Rare, 500 km²
1933, ornamental
Leycesteria formosa
Caprifoliaceae
Asia
W, GE, EW
Common, 12,100 km²
1955, ornamental
Libertia chilensis
Iridaceae
S-Am.
/
Rare, 600 km²
1960, ornamental
Lysichiton americanus (EPPO A2 List)
Iridaceae
N-Am.
/
Occasional, 2,100 km²
1930, ornamental
Matricaria discoidea
Asteraceae
Asia
/
Common, 88,900 km²
1894, grain
Mimulus guttatus
Scrophulariaceae
N-Am.
EW
Occasional, 3,600 km²
1866, ornamental

Mimulus x robertsii
Scrophulariaceae
Hort.
/
Common, 11,500 km²
1865, ornamental
Mycelis muralis
Asteraceae
Eurasia
/
Common, 7,500 km²
1866, ornamental
Nymphoides peltata
Menyanthaceae
Eurasia
W, QW, EW
Occasional, 1,000 km²
1866, ornamental
Oenothera glazioviana
Oenotheraceae
N-Am.
W, EW
Occasional, 1,600 km²
1873, ornamental
Orobanche minor
Orobanchaceae
Eurasia
W, N, EW
Common, 6,800 km²
1866, clover seeds
Petasites fragrans
Asteraceae
Medit.
N, EW
Common, 52,000 km²
1866, ornamental
Poa palustris
Poaceae
Cosm.
W
Rare, 600 km²
1886, wool, grain, fodder
Prunus cerasus
Rosaceae
Asia
W, EW
Common, 20,000 km²
1866, food, ornament
Rhododendron ponticum (EPPO List of IAS)
Ericaceae
Eurasia
W, SW, EW
Common, 46,100 km²
1800, ornamental, shelter
Rubus spectabilis
Rosaceae
N-Am.
/
Common, 13,600 km²
1931, ornamental
Sarracenia purpurea
Saraceniaceae
N-Am.
/
Rare, 500 km²
1905
Selaginella kraussiana
Selleginaceae
Af.
W, QW, GE, EW
Occasional, 1,900 km²
1955, ornamental
Senecio cineraria
Asteraceae
Medit. Asia
W
Rare, 800 km²
1898, ornamental
Sisyrinchium californicum
Iridaceae
N-Am.
/
Rare, 100 km²
1896, ornamental
Spartina anglica
Poaceae
Eur.
W, QW, N, EW
Common, 6,900 km²
1925, soil stabilisation
Stratiotes aloides
Hydrocharitaceae
Eurasia
W, QW, N, EW
Rare, 700 km²
1805
Symphoricarpos albus
Caprifoliaceae
N-Am.
W
Common, 69,000 km²
1903, ornamental, game cover
Verbena officinalis
Verbenaceae
Eur.
W, GE, EW
Occasional, 3,800 km²
1866, medical

Abbreviations for the Global Compendium of Weeds column:
W: weed; NW: noxious weed; N: naturalized; QW: quarantine weed; GE: garden escape; EW: environmental weed; SW: sleeper weed; /: not quoted in the GCW.

Many of these species are considered invasive aliens in Ireland while they are native from other nearby EPPO countries. Species such as Impatiens parviflora and Elodea canadensis are recorded as invasive in almost all countries of the temperate and Mediterranean EPPO countries.

Some other species are also recorded as alien invasive in a few other EPPO countries:
- Acaena nova-zelandae is recorded as invasive in the United Kingdom (University of Liverpool Website),
- Buddleja davidii is recorded in the United Kingdom (University of Liverpool Website), France (Muller, 2005), Switzerland (Wittenberg, 2005), Germany (Neoflora website), Spain (San Elorza et al., 2004), Italy (Lazio, L Celesti-Grapow et al., pers. comm.) and potentially invasive in Austria (Essl ; Rabitsch, 2004).
- Cornus sericea is considered invasive in Switzerland (Wittenberg, 2005).
- Coronopus didymus is considered invasive in Italy (Lazio, L Celesti-Grapow et al., pers. comm.) and in Greece (E Arvanitakis, pers. comm.).
- Croscomia x croscomiifolia is also recorded as invasive in the United Kingdom (University of Liverpool Website) and in Spain (San Elorza et al., 2004).
- Fallopia balduschianica shows invasive behaviour in France (JM Tison, pers. comm.), in Italy (Lazio, L Celesti-Grapow et al., pers. comm.), in Spain (San Elorza et al., 2004) and in Slovenia (Nejc Jogan, pers. comm.).
- Fuschia magellanica is recorded as invasive in the UK (University of Liverpool Website).
- Gaultheria shallon is recorded as invasive in the United Kingdom (University of Liverpool Website) and in Scotland (The Wildlife and Countrysite Act 1981).
- Hyacinthoides hispanica threatened Hyacinthoides non-scripta by competition and hybridization in the UK (University of Liverpool Website) and in Scotland (The Wildlife and Countrysite Act 1981).
- Lemna minuta is recorded as invasive in Belgium (Invasive Species in Belgium Website), the Netherlands (Plant Protection Service, pers. comm.), the United Kingdom (University of Liverpool Website) and France (Muller, 2005).
- Matricaria discoidea is recorded as invasive in Germany (Federal Biological Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, pers. comm.), the Netherlands (Plant Protection Service, pers. comm.), Czech Republic (National Plant Protection Service, pers. comm.), the United Kingdom (University of Liverpool Website) and Serbia (Danijela Stesevic et al.; pers. comm.).
- Mimulus guttatus is present in many countries but is recorded as invasive in Czech Republic (Pyšek et al., 2002) and in Poland (W Solarz, pers. comm.).
- Oenothera glazioviana is recorded as invasive in Spain (San Elorza et al., 2004).
- Symphoricarpos albus is recorded as invasive in Germany (Federal Biological Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, pers. comm.), Czech Republic (Pyšek et al., 2002) and the United Kingdom (University of Liverpool Website).

Some other species are newly recorded as invasive for the region: Calystegia pulchra, Cotoneaster integrifolius, Cotoneaster simonsii, Epilobium brunnescens, Gaultheria mucronata, Halogaris micrantha, Hebe x franciscana, Juncus planifolius, Leycesteria formosa, Libertia chilensis, Mimulus x robertsii, Prunus cerasus, Rubus spectabilis, Sarracenia purpurea, Selaginella kraussiana, Sisyrinchium californicum and Stratiotes aloides.

Sources

Database of the alien plants in Ireland. http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants
Essl F, Rabitsch W (2002) Austrian action plan on invasive alien species. Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. Vienna. 15 pp.;http://www.umweltbundesamt.at/fileadmin/site/umweltthemen/naturschutz/Neobiota_Engl.pdf
Invasive Species in Belgium Website. http://ias.biodiversity.be/?searchterm=invasive%2520plants
Muller S (Coord.) (2005) Plantes invasives en France. (Patrimoines naturels, 62). Museum National D’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 168 p.
Neoflora website (Germany). http://www.floraweb.de/neoflora/
Pyšek P, Sádlo J, Mandák B (2002) Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia, Praha, 74: 97-186.
San Elorza M, Dana Sanchez E D, Sobrino Vesperinas E (eds.) (2004) Atlas de las plantas aloctonas invasoras en Espana. Direccion para la biodiversidad. Madrid, 384 pp.
University of Liverpool – Invasive Non Native Species in the UK. http://138.253.199.114/IAAP%20Web/IAAPwebsite/index.asp
Wittenberg R (ed.) (2005) An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. http://www.umwelt-schweiz.ch/buwal/fr/fachgebiete/fg_biotechnologie/news/2005-09-26-00893/index.html
The Wildlife and Countrysite Act 1981. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/ssi2005/20050308.htm